A Closed Loop
Kore’s technology generates zero waste and can use its own self-generated heat to power its process. No supplemental energy inputs are required.
Modular and Compact
The Kore pyrolysis system is composed of pre-engineered, skid-mounted modules that can be configured to accept many different kinds of feedstock. A typical Kore installation has a footprint of an acre or less.
A Proven Technology, Improved
Kore pyrolysis heats feedstock longer and at higher temperatures than existing methods, producing a biogas that can be upgraded to UltraGreen hydrogen™ and to renewable natural gas.
Co-Location at Client Site
Kore performs the installation on-site, integrating the system into existing client infrastructure, and offers ongoing operational support and maintenance.
Carbon Char Cooling and Output
Gas Conditioning and Purification
The raw materials for the Kore process are the hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen contained in the feedstocks, which can range from agricultural residue to deadwood and construction debris. Before entering the hopper, some feedstocks require drying, as well as chipping or grinding, to attain the two- to three-inch size required by the process.
The feedstock is continuously fed into the pyrolyzer and is indirectly heated to temperatures exceeding 1,000°F. The feedstock is converted into a gas consisting of hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The fixed carbon becomes an elemental carbon char.
Carbon Char Cooling and Output
The carbon char exits the reactor at around 1,400˚F and falls onto a conveyor, where it cools in vacuum conditions. Every ton of feedstock produces around 400 pounds of carbon char, which can be used as a coal substitute and as a soil amendment that can reduce irrigation needs by up to 60 million gallons per year (based on a single 1 ton/hour Kore system).
Gas Conditioning and Purification
The gas exits the reactor and enters a cyclone separator, which removes dust and soot. Then a Venturi scrubber cools the gas and removes condensable liquids. The result is a moisture-free, impurity-free biogas.
Kore’s biogas has a heating value of 500–600 BTU/ft3, about half that of pipeline natural gas; it can be used to generate steam, electricity, and heat. The biogas can be upgraded on-site to ultra-pure hydrogen, or it can undergo methanization to be converted into a renewable natural gas with the same energy value as conventional natural gas. All gases can be pressurized and stored on-site.
Kore uses a slow pyrolysis process that subjects organic feedstock to temperatures in excess of 1,000ºF in the complete absence of oxygen, causing volatile solids to convert to an energy-dense biogas that can be upgraded on-site to renewable natural gas and vehicle-grade UltraGreen hydrogen™, leaving behind an energy-rich solid carbon char.
Kore’s commercial-scale facility in downtown Los Angeles for SoCalGas came online in August 2021, processing approximately 24 tons of feedstock per day. The Kore technology is currently at a technology readiness level (TRL) 7.
Kore offers an end-to-end turnkey solution: We will install the system on-site and provide ongoing operational support and maintenance, as well as feedstock supply and product offtake agreements. Alternatively, we can offer energy-as-a-service—selling renewable biogas, renewable natural gas, vehicle-grade UltraGreen hydrogen™, power, and energy-rich carbon char at competitive prices. We can also offer waste-as-a-service, which allows customers to reduce or eliminate tipping fees and provides an alternative to conventional disposal that’s both economically and environmentally sustainable.
Unlike other waste to energy companies using thermal conversion technologies, Kore has created a proprietary high-heat, long-residence-time pyrolysis process that yields both a renewable, upgradable biogas and an energy-rich carbon char in a single continuous process, without generating any waste.
The system cost depends on the feedstock characteristics and energy products produced. Contact us to learn more.
The Kore system can be delivered and installed in as little as six months, depending on local permitting and regulations.
The Kore Solution can convert almost any low-moisture organic waste into renewable biogas, renewable natural gas, renewable hydrogen, and solid carbon char.
The process has a sophisticated control system with multiple data acquisition points throughout the reactor that repeatedly measure temperature, gas quality, and other key parameters. The control system adjusts the heating conditions, feed rate, and residence time in response to the operating feedback.
The biogas generated in the process is fully contained within the reactor and the gas-cleaning and gas-upgrading system, resulting in ultra-low emissions. A burner heats air to increase the reactor temperature, and that heated air exits as stack gas. The quality of the stack gas is directly correlated to the burner, which can be designed to meet local air quality requirements. Contact us to learn more.
Kore’s commercial-scale system has been permitted for use in downtown Los Angeles by all governmental entities, including the South Coast Air Quality Management District, which co-sponsored Kore’s commercial facility and is one of the most stringent regulators in the country. The successful permit acquisition process in Los Angeles sets the precedent for acquiring permits in all other regulatory airsheds in the U.S. and the world. In 2012, Kore received the EPA’s Green Chemistry Award.
The Kore Solution is a positive-energy-balance process. The amount of electricity needed for the mechanical equipment is very low: less than 50 HP per reactor. A portion of the biogas produced is recirculated to meet the heat requirements of the process, eliminating the need for significant outside energy input.
Our application is self-contained and generates virtually no waste. Some feedstocks may generate a small amount of non-refractory liquid residue (approximately 1 gpm per ton processed) that may be returned to the pyrolyzer or require disposal.
Our analyses have indicated that the Kore process will destroy PFAS. We expect to confirm this finding during the commercial demonstration test.
Yes. The biogas produced by the Kore process can be used to produce electricity in an engine generator, microturbine, or fuel cell. The biogas can also be upgraded to renewable natural gas and renewable hydrogen for electricity generation.
All heated surfaces are inaccessible to operators. The entire process is monitored by thermocouples, gas sensors, flow meters, and intelligent controls to monitor and shut down the process if abnormal operating conditions are detected.
The gas produced by the Kore process is consistent with accepted regulatory definitions of biogas, which is typically defined as a gas produced from the conversion of biogenic feedstocks (those derived from plants).
During pyrolysis, about half of the carbon in the feedstock ends up in the biogas and the other half in solid carbon char. The char consists of elemental carbon and ash present in the feedstock, with trace amounts of heavy metals that do not exceed regulatory levels of concern. The solid char production depends on the ash content of the feedstock, but typically is 20 to 25 percent of the bone-dry mass of the feedstock. The solid char can be used as a soil amendment to reduce irrigation needs; as a coal substitute for hard to decarbonize industries like cement and steel manufacturing; as a raw material for graphene production; and as a strengthening agent for ultra-high-performance concrete.
Yes. The Kore process satisfies the most stringent landfill diversion regulations in the country, including the landmark organic waste reduction ordinance issued by the California Department of Resources and Recycling and signed into law in 2016. Kore biogas, renewable natural gas, and renewable hydrogen qualify for LCFS credits, and Kore’s renewable natural gas qualifies for RIN credits. (We expect that RINs for renewable hydrogen will become available as production grows.)